The drug is a preparation of natural origin, which has an adsorbing effect, puts in order the mucous barrier. Also, after the use of the drug, polyvalent bonds with mucus glycoproteins are formed, and its gastroprotective properties increase. Contributes to the protection of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract from the negative effects of hydrochloric acid, bile salts, viruses and toxins. Clinical studies have shown that Smecta can influence the reproduction of viruses, limiting the penetration of viruses through the intestinal mucous layer, as well as undigested carbohydrates, which cause the process of gas formation, are removed from the intestine, which helps to restore electrolyte balance. It is taken for diarrhea, gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, colitis, as well as patients with pain dyspeptic syndrome due to ulcers, gastritis, duodenitis. There is a more significant reason for taking the medicine - the withdrawal from the body of radionuclides or heavy metals. Another advantage of this drug is safety, proven by numerous studies and trials, thanks to which it has been shown for use by pregnant, lactating and children. Smekta has contraindications: the drug can cause hypersensitivity and intestinal obstruction, allergic reactions. The drug reduces the rate and extent of absorption of simultaneously taken drugs, so be sure to consult with your doctor, and carefully read the annotation to the drug, before taking. Smektu should be stored at a temperature not higher than 25 ° C.
Smektu should be diluted as follows: dilute the contents of the medicine bag in water (50 ml), gradually add the powder and stir evenly, or mix with the semi-liquid product (porridge, puree, compote, baby food).
- Divide into 3 - 4 receptions during the day.
- For children under 1 year old, take Smecta with a dosage of 3 grams (1 sachet) per day; Children from 1 to 2 years old with a dosage of 6 grams (2 sachets) per day; Children older than 2 years of age, 6-9 grams (3 to 4 sachets) per day. Smecta should take a course of treatment for 3-7 days, the intervals between taking Smekta and other drugs should be 1-2 hours.
Causes of Colitis
According to medical terminology, this is a dystrophic-inflammatory lesion of the mucous membrane of the large intestine, which entails serious dysfunctions of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract). Acute colitis develops with infectious, ischemic (with a lack of blood supply), medicinal or toxic damage to the specified section of the digestive system. So:
- The symptomatology of acute colitis in adults is represented by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large intestine and stomach, arises against the background of increased activity of a pathogenic infection.
- Chronic disease progresses in the presence of foci of infection in the gallbladder, pancreas and other organs anatomically connected with the intestines.
In addition, it is important to remember the dangers of prolonged monotonous nutrition. Patients are advised to refrain from the use of hard-to-digest and spicy food, alcohol. Other factors provoking colitis:
- medications: laxatives in the form of rectal suppositories and enemas, antibiotics,
- infection: dysentery, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, amebiasis, helminthiasis,
- food poisoning, when the colon mucosa is irritated and destroyed by allergens, toxins,
- transferred stress, violation of the usual routine and routine of the patient,
- the influence of toxic substances: salts of heavy metals, lead, mercury, arsenic, toxins decomposition products,
- alimentary factor: damage to the intestinal mucosa can be solid food, salty, spicy and smoked dishes,
- circulatory disorders.
Often the main causes of progressive colitis are systematic overeating, the use of harmful foods, exposure to allergens, prolonged hypothermia, emotional and physical stress. Complications of long-term antibiotic use are not excluded, since the walls of the mucous membrane of the large intestine are destroyed under the influence of individual synthetic components of these drugs.
Symptoms of colitis
If the patient has paroxysmal abdominal pain, acute diarrhea is concerned, then these are the first signs of colitis, the intensity of which in the absence of timely treatment will only increase. General symptoms include such changes in general well-being:
- feeling of rumbling in the stomach, indigestion, signs of intestinal distention,
- fever (fever), chills,
- frequent urge to stool,
- symptoms of dehydration, represented by dizziness, general weakness,
- fecal masses with blood impurities, often caused by hemorrhoids aggravated by diarrhea.
Not all symptoms may be present at the same time, their severity and intensity vary depending on the specific clinical picture. Effective treatment of intestinal colitis at home is possible only after a definitive diagnosis, and this requires a knowledge of the classification and the distinctive features of each form of this disease.
Types of colitis
Effective treatment for intestinal colitis in adults depends on the form of the disease, the individual characteristics of the organism. The conditional classification of the disease according to the characteristics of the pathological process is represented by the following types:
- Acute. It is provoked by an allergic reaction, poor-quality nutrition, a bacterial infection. Under the influence of pathogenic factors, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon and small intestine, stomach occurs.
- Chronic. The disease is caused by prolonged intake of laxatives, a violation of the intestinal microflora and pathogenic microorganisms. There is inflammation of the digestive tract with recurrent bouts of pain.
A classification according to endoscopic characteristics is provided. Types of colitis are:
- Pseudomembranous. Long treatment with antibiotics violates the intestinal microflora and creates favorable conditions for the activity of harmful bacteria. Manifests colitis with severe symptoms of dysbacteriosis (diarrhea, flatulence, bloating).
- Ulcerative. Stress, unhealthy diet, infections, and genetic diseases are considered to be provoking factors. This form of the disease is accompanied by purulent inflammation of the large intestine, proceeds in a severe form.
- Atrophic. The organism is intoxicated with poisons, heavy metal salts, toxins, and chemical reagents. With this disease, there is partial atrophy of the colon, when the walls of the body gradually become thinner.
- Spastic. The main causes of the disease are bad habits, poor diet, unhealthy lifestyle. Patients with this form of colitis complain of irritable bowel syndrome (abdominal pain and cramps, diarrhea, flatulence).
- Catarrhal Pathogenic factors are food poisoning, intestinal diseases, vitamin deficiency, weakening of local immunity.
Diagnosis of colitis
With proper determination of the form of the disease, the treatment of colitis at home is highly effective. Exact diagnostics includes a number of laboratory and clinical examinations:
- Colonoscopy or rectoromanoscopy. Such techniques can detect catarrhal or atrophic changes in the intestinal mucosa.
- Scatology. In this way, you can give a real assessment of the work of the digestive system, metabolism.
- Radiography or irrigography. You can directly determine the location of the lesion of pathology, assess the structure of the mucous membrane of the large intestine.
- General analysis of blood and urine. Needed to identify the inflammatory, infectious process.
- General analysis of feces, research on the simplest eggs. If you take the biological material for research in time and identify parasites, you can stop the pathological process of thinning the walls of the large intestine, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the treatment of colitis.
A biopsy may be required (taking the intestinal cells for analysis). The necessity of analyzing the similarity of the symptoms of colitis with signs of malignant tumors is explained. If there are no cancer processes and colon inflammation is diagnosed, the clinical outcome is favorable. The treatment of chronic colitis of the intestines with medicines has a high efficiency.
Treatment of colitis in adults
In order to speed up the natural process of recovery, the patient needs a comprehensive approach to the health problem, which necessarily includes diet, medication and course use of alternative medicine. General recommendations of competent specialists are presented in the following list:
- In the acute stage of colitis, it is required to provide the patient with complete rest (bed rest), for the next 24-48 hours to exclude from the diet any food, leave non-carbonated water, unsweetened tea.
- In the presence of infection it is necessary to wash the stomach, in addition, in addition, there is a need for the formulation of cleansing enemas.
- In case of acute pains, antispasmodics are prescribed (medicines that eliminate pain in case of spasms of the muscular wall of the organ). Whatever groups of drugs are prescribed, in addition to the complex therapy scheme, probiotics are involved, which restore the intestinal microflora.
- In case of violations of water-salt balance, in order to avoid highly undesirable dehydration, it is required to carry out infusion therapy (infusion of detoxification solutions against dehydration).
Proper nutrition - is part of the treatment, the key to a speedy recovery. It is important not to overload the digestive system, reduce the load on the inflamed intestines. To achieve such positive results, you should use the following valuable tips gastroenterologists:
- In the treatment of colitis under the strict prohibition of the use of such foods as bran, bran bread, beef, pork, salads, fresh vegetables with seeds.
- It is not recommended to drink a lot of liquid, and it is desirable to replace concentrated juices with fresh squeezed fresh juices. Every morning it is recommended to drink 1 glass of warm water on an empty stomach in order to “start” the process of digestion, which is slowed down at night.
- Food should not be cold or too hot; fried food is forbidden. Cooking dishes preferably steamed, boil, stew. Fruits better baked in the oven.
- The daily menu is allowed lamb, chicken, fruit, warm soups, mashed potatoes, seedless vegetables, butter, yesterday's bread, a small amount of salt and spices.
- Food is recommended to knead and grind, to prevent injury to the already inflamed mucosa. Welcome the presence in the diet of liquid dishes (necessarily warm).
After diagnosis, you can not hesitate with the beginning of conservative therapy prescribed by a gastroenterologist.individually. For successful treatment of colitis, the first thing you need to find out the pathogenic factor and eliminate it. In case of helminthic colitis, antiparasitic therapy is appropriate, whereas in the infectious form of the disease antibiotics of the sulfonamide group are more appropriate. The treatment does not exclude the participation of such pharmacological groups and their representatives:
- antiplatelet agents are needed to restore vascular circulation, for example, pentoxifylline,
- thrombolytic drugs inhibit the development of thrombosis, for example, Steptokinase, Urokinase,
- adsorbents are necessary for cleaning the intestines, removing toxins, toxic substances, for example, you can use activated carbon, Lactofiltrum,
- antispasmodics against recurrent bouts of pain, especially effective No-shpa,
- intestinal antiseptics with adsorbing action, for example, Furazolidone, Enterosgel, Smecta,
- laxatives necessary to normalize the work of the digestive organs, for example, Guttalaks, RektAktiv, Mukofalk,
- antidiarrheal drugs successfully combat the relaxation of the stool; Loperamide, Enterol, and
- means for restoring water balance, for example, Oralit and Regidron in powder for solution preparation,
- probiotics are needed to normalize the intestinal microflora, regeneration of injured tissues, for example, Linex, Bifidumbacterin,
- sorbents (Smekta, Polysorb),
- antihistamines (Tavegil, Claritin) as a desensitizing treatment (necessary to suppress the action of allergens),
- vitamins are useful for immunity, strengthening the protective functions of the body, for example, Alphabet, Pikovit,
- immunomodulators stimulate the protective functions of the body, for example, Polyoxidonium, Ceramil, Myelopid, Immunal have proven themselves well.
Treatment of folk remedies
The publicly available methods of alternative medicine also contribute to the recovery of the patient with colitis, but only in conjunction with medicines. It is important to discuss popular treatment with a specialist in order to minimize the risk of side effects and eliminate negative drug interactions. Here are the time-tested recipes:
- quince seeds in the amount of 10 g pour 1 liter of boiling water, insist 10 hours, strain. To use medicine inside in a cooled form, having divided the received volume into three daily receptions. The course of treatment is up to 2 weeks,
- chicory in the amount of 1 tsp. steam in 1 cup of boiled milk, cover with a lid and insist until complete cooling. Use the finished composition 4 times a day for a quarter cup per reception. The course of treatment is 2-3 weeks,
- 2 tbsp. l sage pour 2 tbsp. boiling water, insist to cool the liquid and drain. Use the composition inside 100 ml before meals up to 4 times per day. The course of treatment is up to 1 month.
- per day it is required to consume up to 1.5 kg of ground apples, dividing the received portion into 5 daily approaches,
- 3 tbsp. l berries or leaves of blueberry is required to pour 600 ml of boiling water, insist 8 hours, strain. Take one glass three times a day, instead of any other drink.
Use in inflammation of the gastric mucosa
Gastritis is a disease in which an inflammatory process develops in the gastric mucosa, accompanied by pain, heaviness, belching, vomiting, and dyspeptic disorders associated with eating. The disease can leak with low (hypoacid gastritis) or high (hyperacid gastritis) acidity.
In gastritis with increased acidity during an exacerbation in the stomach, an excessive amount of hydrochloric acid is produced, which has an irritating effect on the inner membrane. In this regard, to protect the mucous layer, it is necessary to use adsorbent drugs, which include Smecta.
The effectiveness of the drug for gastritis is related to the fact that it:
- stabilizes the mucous barrier,
- relieves inflammation
- increases viscosity and improves the rheological properties of mucus, increases the duration of its "life",
- eliminates diarrhea that occurs during gastritis as a result of violations of the process of digestion,
- protects the inner shell of the body from the negative influence of irritants (pathogenic microorganisms, toxins, spicy foods, etc.),
- it forms on the mucous membrane the thinnest protective layer that prevents the contact of stimuli with nerve endings, which helps prevent or reduce pain.
Gastric mucosa changes
Smecta with stomach pains on the background of gastritis with high acidity 20-30 minutes after administration helps to improve the patient's condition and eliminate unpleasant symptoms. To obtain a long-term therapeutic effect, it is recommended to take it for 5–7 days in a row.
Note: Taking Smekta 40 minutes before a meal reduces appetite, which prevents the risks of overeating, which often leads to an exacerbation of chronic inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract.
As an adjunct, Smecta is recommended for stomach ulcers. Despite the fact that it does not affect the production of gastric juice, its effectiveness is explained by enveloping and sorbing properties. The drug is able to sorb and remove pathogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which is one of the main causes of the development of gastric ulcer, as well as increase the resistance of the mucous membrane to the effects of hydrochloric acid and pepsin enzyme.
Action for GERD
The use of Smekta is effective in gastroesophageal reflux, when, due to a violation of the contractile function of the lower esophageal sphincter or other factors, gastric contents are thrown into the esophagus, damaging the organ mucosa. Especially often this occurs when overeating, which leads to overflow of the stomach and additional pressure on the sphincter.
The tool is available in powder form for the preparation of suspensions.
The drug is prescribed an hour after eating with the appearance of heartburn, belching, and also as a cytoprotector before eating and at night after the abolition of proton pump inhibitors. It neutralizes the gases in the esophagus and has an irritating and cytotoxic effect on its mucosa, hydrochloric acid, gastric enzymes.
Use in intestinal diseases
Smecta is used as part of the treatment of intestinal pathologies such as colitis, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). All these diseases are characterized by pain, discomfort in the abdomen, and stool disorders, mainly in the form of diarrhea. The drug helps to eliminate the symptoms of the disease and normalize the functions of the large intestine, while not affecting its motility.
Inflammation of the mucous in colitis
Dioctahedral smectite, which is an active component of the drug, helps with intestinal pathologies:
- eliminate diarrhea, increased gas formation,
- prevent fluid loss, development of dehydration as a complication of prolonged diarrhea,
- remove pathogenic bacteria and toxins,
- improve the digestive process
- remove inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon, prevent irritating factors from affecting it due to its enveloping properties,
- protect the mucosa from the influence of negative factors.
It is recommended to take Smecta in case of intestinal disturbances caused by pathological processes before eating. Duration of treatment should not exceed 5-7 days, since otherwise the development of constipation is possible.
Smecta is considered a safe drug of natural origin, which is not absorbed in the digestive tract and is excreted from the body unchanged. The only contraindication to its reception is intestinal obstruction. However, this does not mean that the drug can be taken for a long time without a gastroenterologist.
Symptoms and signs of intestinal colitis
Signs of acute colitis are: bloating, pain in the abdomen and right side, diarrhea, including blood, mucus in the stool, fever, deterioration of general condition, bitter taste in the mouth. During an exacerbation of the course of a chronic type of the disease, a general malaise, nausea, poor appetite, cramping pain, alternating constipation and diarrhea, mucous discharge, strong painful urge to defecate are observed behind a person.
Types of colitis and their causes
By the type of course of colitis distinguish chronic and acute. The latter proceeds quickly, rapidly, and chronic - long, sluggish. An acute type of illness can go hand in hand with enterocolitis, gastroenterocolitis, gastritis. In addition, diseases can be ulcerative, nonspecific, infectious, spastic, catarrhal, erosive, superficial, atrophic, etc. Let's take a closer look at each type.
The most common form of colitis, which is accompanied by inflammation of the gastric mucosa, small intestine. Pathogens can be shigella, salmonella, other pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Food poisoning, malnutrition, common infections, allergies, and toxic substances are the cause. The large intestine becomes inflamed due to the influence of damaging factors on the mucous membrane.
Chronic disease can be non-infectious and infectious. Causative agents of intestinal infections cause an infectious form of the disease. Colitis develops under the influence of dysbacteriosis when the pathogenic flora is activated. More common non-infectious, which is caused by an illiterate diet and nutrition. It can also occur after taking antibiotics, laxative drugs.
The ulcerative type of the disease is characterized by hemorrhagic-purulent inflammatory process of the colon with the development of systemic, local complications. The exact causes and origins of the disease are still unknown. There are suggestions that the disease may be caused by an unbalanced diet, an unidentified infection, drugs, genetic mutations, shifts in the intestinal flora and stresses.
The spastic type is often triggered by an unhealthy lifestyle, as well as mistakes made in the diet. Doctors such a disease in many cases is called irritable bowel syndrome, during which there is an inflammatory phenomenon of a chronic type in the mucous membrane of the colon. The disease can develop after drinking for a long time coffee, soda, alcohol, poor-quality food, as well as after suffering gastroenteritis.
The etiology of colitis is diverse. Both an abnormal and unhealthy diet and pathogens can cause inflammation of the colon mucosa.
Colitis may occur due to the development of atherosclerosis.
Colitis can occur for the following reasons:
- hit in intestines of pathogenic bacteria,
- long-term antibiotic therapy without prebiotics,
- the presence of chronic endogenous foci of infection,
- alimentary allergies
- poisoning with poisons
- damage to the intestinal mucosa by drugs,
- genetic predisposition
- unhealthy food
- alcohol abuse.
As you can see, the causes of the disease are varied, so colitis is usually distinguished by etiology.
In some cases, colitis causes helminthiasis.
Colitis is distinguished by etiology, form, course and localization. To your attention the generally accepted classification of colitis, which is used throughout the world.
Depending on the duration of the course, colitis can be acute and chronic.
Also colitis is divided by localization, where the following forms are distinguished:
- typhlitis is an inflammation of the mucous layer of the cecum,
- transversitis - inflammation of the mucous layer of the transverse colon,
- sigmoiditis - inflammation of the mucous layer of the sigmoid colon,
- proctitis - inflammation of the mucous layer of the rectum,
- Pancolitis - inflammation of the mucous layer of all parts of the large intestine.
The most common combination of sigmoiditis and proctitis is proctosigmoiditis, which is commonly called distal colitis.
In addition, colitis is classified by etiological factor. According to the etiological classification exists several types of colitis, namely:
- infectious colitis, which is caused by the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into the mucous membrane of the colon. The classic infectious colitis is dysentery and colibacillosis,
- ulcerative colitis is a group of colitis characterized by ulceration in the mucous and submucosal layers of the colon. This group includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease,
- toxic colitis is colitis resulting from chemical exposure of the colon to the mucous membrane of toxic chemicals (poisons, drugs),
- ischemic colitis is the result of occlusion of the arteries that supply the large intestine,
- radiation colitis occurs as a result of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Signs and symptoms of colitis
The most constant symptom of colitis that accompanies all forms of the disease, regardless of etiology, is abdominal pain. Localization of pain depends on which part of the intestine is affected. For example, with sigmoiditis, it will hurt in the lower abdomen on the left. Localization of pain suggests the location of the inflammatory process in the colon.
The second most common symptom of colitis can be called a violation of the bowels, which is manifested by constipation, diarrhea or instability of the stool.
Diarrhea is more often observed with infectious colitis, for example, with salmonellosis, the number of bowel movements can reach 20 times a day.
No less frequent are constipation with colitis, especially when the disease is accompanied by impaired peristalsis, which is a consequence of atrophic changes in the muscle layer or impaired innervation of the large intestine. Most often, constipation is accompanied by atonic colitis.
In addition to these signs, changes in feces are characteristic of colitis, which becomes liquid, even watery. Often in the feces can determine the pathological impurities, such as mucus, pus and blood.
But for colitis, which is accompanied by constipation, the feces can be stony and pea-like, so the act of defecation can often lead to anal tears and inflammation of hemorrhoidal cones.
But there are also a number of symptoms that are characteristic of some forms of colitis. Rhaber them.
An increase in body temperature is a sign of infection of the colon.
- An increase in body temperature is a sign of infection of the colon. In addition to fever, patients present symptoms of intoxication syndrome: chills, excessive sweating, pain in the joints and muscles, general weakness, indisposition, etc.
- Intestinal bleeding occurs with ulcerative colitis. Blood excretion has a different character - from massive bleeding to strips on the feces. Blood can be located both on the surface and inside the feces. For example, in Crohn's disease, feces are evenly mixed with blood.
- acute abdomen is the result of perforation of the intestinal wall in ulcerative colitis or penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into the abdominal cavity through the internal intestinal fistula.
Now consider the features of individual forms of colitis.
Features of the course of acute colitis
Acute colitis as a separate nosological form is rare. Basically it is diagnosed together with enteritis and / or gastritis.
The disease begins acutely and is characterized by rapid flow.
Patients with acute colitis have nausea.
Patients with acute colitis have the following symptoms:
- decrease or complete lack of appetite,
- abdominal pain spastic character
The localization of symptoms and their severity directly depend on which part of the colon is inflamed.
When inflammation of the left colon is observed painful urge to empty the bowel, intestinal spasms, watery stools with impurities of pus, mucus and blood.
For inflammation of the right large intestine is characterized by increased frequency of bowel movements up to 7 times a day and not much pain. The chair is mushy, rarely liquid with pathological impurities (blood, pus, mucus).
For inflammation of the right large intestine is characterized by the appearance in the fecal masses of mucus.
Acute colitis with the flow resembles an acute abdomen, so it is necessary to carefully differentiate these pathological conditions, since the treatment tactics are significantly different. A distinctive feature of colitis and acute abdomen is that in the first case there is no symptom of peritoneal irritation.
Features of chronic colitis
Chronic colitis is characterized by a long sluggish course, with periods of exacerbation and remission. The disease can last for several years.
In contrast to acute colitis, chronic colitis often occurs as an independent disease, but can sometimes be combined with enteritis and gastritis.
The onset of the disease is mostly gradual and imperceptible. Most patients do not even notice and find it difficult to say when they get colitis. Also, chronic inflammation of the colon mucosa can be the result of untreated or undertreated acute colitis.
Exacerbation of chronic colitis can be caused by various provoking factors, such as dietary disturbances, psycho-emotional shock, or extraintestinal disease.
In the acute period, patients with chronic colitis complain of flatulence.
In the acute period, patients with chronic colitis complain of intestinal colic, flatulence, rumbling in the abdomen and stool instability when diarrhea is replaced by constipation. Even in the period of remission, the disease does not completely recede, as there are swelling of the intestines, painful rumbling in the abdomen and a tendency to constipation.
Also in patients with chronic colitis, appetite is reduced, there is constant malaise and general weakness, nausea and vomiting are often observed.
The severity of manifestations of chronic colitis depends on the factor that caused the disease. The most striking clinical picture is characterized by infectious colitis, especially dysenteric and staphylococcal.
Causes, features of the course and diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis
Pseudomembranous colitis is a lesion of the mucous layer of the colon with clostridia of the genus dificile.
The following factors contribute to the development of pseudomembranous colitis:
- antibiotic therapy
- stay in the surgical department
The following symptoms may be present in patients with pseudomembranous colitis:
- seizure abdominal pain, which are localized in different parts of the abdomen,
- diarrhea up to 20 times a day. The feces are liquid with an admixture of mucus, films and blood,
- fever, sometimes to high numbers.
Pseudomembranous colitis is dangerous for its complications, including perforation of the intestinal wall, inflammation of the peritoneum and megacolon. In this case, symptoms of a complication accumulate on the colitis clinic.
Also, pseudomembranous colitis can provoke an exacerbation of chronic intestinal diseases, for example, hemorrhoids.
With a combination of pseudomembranous colitis and hemorrhoids, both the first and second disease manifestations will be present, and they will aggravate each other.
It is possible to confirm pseudomembranous colitis using the bacteriological method (sowing material on a nutrient medium).
It is possible to confirm pseudomembranous colitis using the bacteriological method (inoculation of the material on a nutrient medium), enzyme immunoassay and a cytotoxic test. But the first method is rarely used, since clostridia grow very slowly. Therefore, bacteriological research in this case is only suitable for retrospective analysis.
Also an important role in confirming the diagnosis is colonoscopy, which allows inspecting the intestines from the inside.
Causes, features of the course and diagnosis of sigmoiditis
Speech on sigmoiditis is in the case when the inflammatory process is localized in the mucous membrane of the sigmoid colon.
Sigmoid colon is a continuation of the descending colon, has an S-shaped form. The length of the body depends on the nature of human nutrition, as well as age and averages 35-40 cm. The intestinal wall of the sigma, like other sections of the colon, consists of mucous, submucosal, muscular and serous layers.
Most often, sigmoiditis develops on the background of dysentery and escherichiosis. A number of such contributing factors as constipation, stony feces, foreign bodies of the sigmoid colon, its strictures and bends are also distinguished.
Depending on the changes of the mucous layer, several forms of sigmoiditis are distinguished, namely:
- purulent hemorrhagic,
According to the etiological classification, sigmoiditis can be nonspecific and specific (tuberculosis, syphilitic, etc.).
Symptoms of acute sigmoiditis:
- pain of a spastic or pulling character, which is localized in the left half of the abdomen,
- painful urge to empty the bowels,
- increase in body temperature to high numbers
- feces with pathological impurities (mucus, blood).
Symptoms of chronic sigmoiditis:
- general weakness
- pulling pains in the left abdomen,
- diarrhea, and in rare cases constipation,
- rumbling in the stomach
- painful urge to stool, which ends with the discharge of blood and pus,
- feces liquid with blood and pus.
The main method for diagnosing sigmoiditis is colonoscopy. The endoscopic signs of this disease are as follows.:
- hypertrophy of the mucous layer of the sigmoid colon,
- erosions and ulcers of the mucous membrane of the sigmoid colon,
- bleeding and vulnerability of the mucous.
Also in the process of comprehensive diagnosis of the patient conduct the following examinations:
- irrigoscopy and irrigology,
- seeding material (purulent secretions, feces) on a nutrient medium,
- determination of antibiotic sensitivity.
Causes, features of the course and diagnosis of distal colitis
Distal colitis is called the simultaneous inflammation of the mucous membrane of the sigmoid and rectum. You can also find the second name of the disease - proctosigmoiditis. In addition, distal colitis can be combined with damage to the entire large intestine, as a result of which its basic functions are disturbed.
Causes of distal colitis:
- irritation of the mucous membrane of the sigmoid and rectum by rough and spicy food, alcoholic drinks, foreign bodies and worms,
- chronic constipation
- inflammation of the pelvic organs,
- cholecystitis with impaired bile flow,
- hypoacid gastritis,
- intestinal dysbiosis,
- long-term use of carry-throughs
- frequent setting enemas
- medication (NSAIDs, antibiotics and others),
- alimentary allergies
- chronic infectious diseases and others.
Depending on the onset of the disease and the duration of the course, acute and chronic distal colitis is distinguished.
Symptoms of acute distal colitis:
- general weakness
- excessive sweating
- sometimes vomiting,
- aching or cutting pains in the lower abdomen to the left of the navel. The pain can be given to the anus, groin, lower back, sacrum and tailbone.
- pain in the anus due to spasm of his muscles,
- false painful urge to empty the bowel,
- diarrhea or constipation
- discomfort in the rectum through the feeling of incomplete emptying,
- feces may be liquid and unformed, or may have a nut-like appearance,
- in the feces there are pathological impurities in the feces (mucus, blood streaks).
In case of chronic course, errors in diet, alcohol consumption, physical and psycho-emotional overstrain can provoke aggravation of the process.
Of instrumental diagnostic methods, the most informative is sigmoidoscopy. Also used are colonoscopy, irrigoscopy and irrigology.
Distal colitis is most often complicated by inflammation of adrectal fat, tears of the anus and prolapse of the rectum.
Causes, features of the course and diagnosis of spastic colitis
Spastic colitis is another form of chronic colitis. The basis of the pathogenesis of this disease is a violation of the motor function of the large intestine, which is manifested by intestinal spasms.
Spastic colitis is rather a functional disorder, so there are no organic changes.
The causes of spastic colitis can be chronic psycho-emotional upheavals, excessive physical and mental stress, internal fears, neuroses, and other neurogenic factors. Also, intestinal cramps can appear on the background of hormonal disruptions.
The causes of spastic colitis can be chronic psycho-emotional upheaval.
Since women are more prone to hormonal fluctuations and emotional lability, spastic colitis is more common in them.
Symptoms of spastic colitis:
- intestinal spasms with no localization that occur in the morning and are associated with food intake,
- stool instability: diarrhea gives way to constipation,
- feces kashitsevidny, sometimes with an admixture of mucus and blood.
On palpation of the abdomen, the doctor reveals sensitive spasmodic segments of the colon.
When instrumental examination of the colon is not determined by significant structural changes. Sometimes you can see only redness and swelling of the mucous membrane of the colon.
Causes, features of the course and diagnosis of ulcerative colitis
Nonspecific ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the mucous layer of the colon, which is characterized by the formation of bleeding ulcers. The disease affects the working population of our planet.
Symptom of ulcerative colitis - loss of appetite.
The disease has an autoimmune nature, that is, the patient's immune system produces antibodies to the cells of its own intestine. Due to the attack of epithelial cells by autoantibodies, an inflammatory process develops and ulcers appear.
For nonspecific ulcerative colitis is characterized by a chronic relapsing course.
Symptoms of ulcerative colitis:
- general weakness
- fast fatiguability,
- loss of appetite
- wave-like rise in body temperature
- seizure abdominal pain,
- diarrhea with blood, mucus and pus,
- frequent painful false urge to empty the bowels,
- weight loss.
Depending on the localization of the inflammatory process, there are several forms of ulcerative colitis, namely:
- distal ulcerative colitis,
- left-sided ulcerative colitis,
In patients with distal ulcerative colitis, pain in the anus, intestinal bleeding, painful urge to empty the bowel and blood diarrhea are observed.
Under pancolith imply a total lesion of the colon. The main symptoms of the disease are intestinal bleeding, diarrhea, intestinal spasms, weight loss, severe general weakness.
Under pancolith imply a total lesion of the colon.
The most informative method for the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis is fibrocolonoscopy, in which hyperemia and swelling of the mucous layer of the large intestine, hypertrophy of the intestinal wall, smoothness of epithelial furrows, dilated capillaries, punctate hemorrhages, ulceration and crypt suppression are detected.
A more modern method for the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, fecal calprotectin, is also used.
Causes, features of the course and diagnosis of ischemic colitis
Ischemic colitis is a consequence of a violation of the blood supply to the colon.
The most severe form of ischemic colitis can be called necrotic, which develops with complete occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery.
The necrotic form of the disease is characterized by a strong pain syndrome, which is localized in the left areas of the abdomen, and symptoms of intestinal obstruction.
Transient form of ischemic colitis is accompanied by vomiting.
Transient form of ischemic colitis occurs with partial occlusion of the arterial vessel. With this form of the disease, patients experience pain in the left half of the abdomen, less frequently in the epigastrium, which appear immediately after eating and are accompanied by diarrhea, flatulence, vomiting, and weight loss.
In the diagnosis of ischemic colitis, the following methods are used:
- computer tomography with contrast.
Diet with colitis
In almost all forms of colitis, the diet has general principles. Consider them:
- therapeutic fasting for 24-48 hours, which goes to table number 4 by Pevzner,
- fractional meals 5-6 times a day in small portions of food (250-300 grams),
- the use of dishes prepared using gentle methods of heat treatment (steamed, boiling),
- foods must contain enough vitamins,
- the menu should consist of cereals, soups, salads, jelly, lean meats, fish and poultry, dried white bread,
- vegetables and fruits are recommended to eat in the form of mashed potatoes,
- solid foods, smoked meats, pickles, spices and other products that may damage and irritate the intestinal mucosa are excluded from the diet,
- It is necessary to limit, and it is better to eliminate sweets and sweet pastries from the diet altogether.
- It is strictly forbidden to consume alcoholic and carbonated drinks.
When selecting a treatment for colitis, the specialist takes into account the etiology, form, prevalence of inflammation. Treatment methods directly depends on the form of colitis.
In virtually all colitis, broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed to destroy the pathogenic flora, which actively reproduces against the background of the disease.
Also a mandatory component of the treatment of colitis is the appointment of bacterial drugs such as Bifikol, Lineks, Laktovit, Bifi-forms and others.
For certain types of colitis, anti-inflammatory therapy is indicated, which consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticosteroid drugs,
If colitis is caused by helminthic invasion, then antihelminthic therapy is required (Dekaris, Piperazin, Wormil and others). All patients show a course of vitamin therapy. Vitrum, Multitabs, Alphabet, Undevit and others can be drugs of choice.
In case of digestive disorders, there is a need for the appointment of enzyme preparations such as Festal, Mezim, Pancreatin and others.
To reduce gas formation and mucus production, enterosorbents are prescribed - activated carbon, Smecta, Enterosgel and others.
To reduce flatulence and mucus production, enterosorbents are prescribed. For example, Enterosgel.
In the fight against diarrhea and constipation, preference is given to popular methods (which we will discuss later) in order to reduce the drug load on the digestive tract.
They are complemented by medical treatment with physiotherapeutic methods, such as diathermy, electrophoresis, mud baths and applications, intestinal douches, and others.
Now consider the features of the treatment of individual forms of colitis.
Features of the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis
In the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis, experts adhere to the following principles:
- immediate cancellation of antibiotics that caused the disease. With a slight course of colitis, such an action will be enough for the patient to recover,
- administration of antibiotics to which clostridia are sensitive: Metronidazole, Neomycin and others,
- removal of toxins from the intestines with the help of enterosorbents: Smekta, Enterosgel, White coal, Atoxyl and others.
Features of the treatment of sigmoiditis
The treatment of sigmoiditis is as follows:
- diet food,
- bed rest or semi-bed rest, depending on the general condition of the patient,
- antibiotic therapy. The drug is chosen based on the sensitivity of the pathogen,
- vitamin preparations
- microclysters with infusions of medicinal herbs (chamomile, calendula, nettle, yarrow and others).
Features of treatment of distal colitis
The choice of treatment for distal colitis directly depends on its form, prevalence and severity of damage to the intestinal wall.
The treatment of this disease is as follows:
- sparing diet
- physical exercise restriction
- vitamin therapy,
- therapeutic microclysters,
- anti-inflammatory candles (Ultraprokt, Proktozan, sea buckthorn candles and others),
- bath on the anus.
Features of the treatment of spastic colitis
In the treatment of spastic colitis, all activities and funds are aimed at relieving nervous tension and restoring the normal motility of the large intestine.
For the treatment of spastic colitis using the following methods:
- split meals
- limiting physical and emotional stress
- antispasmodic drugs (No-spa, Riabal and others).
Features of the treatment of ulcerative colitis:
- limiting physical and mental stress,
- diet (exclusion from the diet of dairy products, spices, alcoholic beverages, soda, etc.),
- anti-inflammatory therapy (Infliximab, Prednisolone and others),
- immunosuppressive therapy (Methotrexate, Azathioprine and others),
- agents that increase the reparative properties of the colon mucous,
- rectal candles,
- operative intervention with the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy.
Neomycin sulfate is a broad-spectrum antibiotic from the group of aminoglycosides. The drug has a peculiar bactericidal effect.
The drug adversely affects most gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Neomycin is especially active against Escherichia, Clostridia, Shigella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Koch sticks.
When administered neomycin acts exclusively on pathogens that are in the digestive tract, which we need in the treatment of colitis.
Neomycin sulfate is contraindicated in severe kidney disease, damage to the auditory nerve and intolerance to the components of the drug.
It is not recommended to treat Neomycin in pregnant women, as it threatens to have a negative effect on the kidneys and the organ of hearing of the fetus.
Patients may experience adverse reactions to Neomycin in the form of dyspeptic symptoms, allergies, hearing loss, candidiasis.
Patients with colitis appoint 1-2 tablets (100-200 mg) 3 times a day. The duration of treatment is determined by the attending doctor.
Neomycin sulfate is contraindicated in severe kidney disease, damage to the auditory nerve and intolerance to the components of the drug.
Smect is prescribed for diarrhea of various genesis, heartburn and flatulence.
The drug is not used in case of intolerance to its components, intestinal obstruction, allergy to fructose and sucrase-isomaltase deficiency. The drug does not penetrate through the placenta and into breast milk, so it can be used during pregnancy.
Side effects in patients almost does not occur. In very rare cases, constipation and allergies (dermatitis, urticaria, itching, skin flushing, and others) may appear.
In case of colitis, Smekt is prescribed 3 times a day, 1 sachet between meals.
No-shpa is a classic antispasmodic drug with a mild effect on intestinal motility.
The drug is used in gastroduodenitis, gastric ulcers, colitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, proctitis, flatulence and other pathological conditions that are accompanied by spasm of the smooth muscle muscles.
No-spa is contraindicated for individual intolerance to the components of the drug, renal and hepatic insufficiency, diseases of the cardiovascular system, which are accompanied by low blood pressure, and lactose intolerance.
Also, the drug is not prescribed to children and lactating mothers.
During pregnancy, No-shpu can be used only as directed by the treating doctor, who assesses all the risks and effects of such therapy.
During pregnancy, No-shpu can be used only as directed by the treating doctor.
Side effects in patients rarely occur in the form of hypotension, tachycardia, headache, nausea, and allergies to the components of the drug.
For intestinal cramps, 1 tablet is prescribed 3 times a day.
Linex is a eubiotic used for the treatment and prevention of dysbiosis, which consists of three strains - Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium infantis.
Linex normalizes the intestinal pH, increases the production of vitamins B, C, K, activates the secretion of bile and strengthens the immune system. The drug is widely prescribed to patients with colitis for the treatment or prevention of dysbiosis
Linex is contraindicated in case of individual intolerance to its components.
The drug can be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding. No side effects were found in Linex.
Patients with colitis are prescribed 2 capsules of Linex 3 times a day after meals.
Candles Ultraprokt is a multi-component antihemorrhoidal drug that has a local anti-inflammatory, antipruritic and analgesic effects.
Candles Ultraprokt used in the treatment of hemorrhoids, but can also be prescribed as part of complex therapy for patients with distal colitis.
The drug consists of two active ingredients: glucocorticosteroid Fluocortolone and local anesthetic - Tsinkhokain.
Ultraprokt suppositories are used mainly in the treatment of hemorrhoids, but can also be prescribed as part of complex therapy for patients with distal colitis.
The drug is not used for colitis tuberculosis or syphilis nature, as well as viral lesions of the anus. The use of Ultraprokt suppository in the first trimester of pregnancy is strictly unacceptable.
The drug is well tolerated. In rare cases, there may be local allergies to its components (itching, flushing, swelling of tissues, urticaria), and with prolonged use of candles can develop atrophy of the skin of the anus.
In case of distal colitis, 1 candle is prescribed 2 times a day. Before the introduction of the suppository into the rectum, it is necessary to empty the intestines and carry out a hygienic toilet of the anus, genitals and perineum.
Treatment of colitis folk remedies
Folk remedies for colitis can be a successful supplement to the main drug therapy.
We offer you the most effective folk remedies and especially their use in colitis.
Propolis tincture with colitis take 25-35 drops three times a day between meals.
- Mummy: 10 mg of mummy is dissolved in 15 ml of boiled cooled water. Accept inside 10 ml twice a day before meals. You can also soak the cotton pad with the remaining medicine and insert it into the anus for the night. Mummy in colitis helps to stop inflammation, relieve pain in the colon and speed up the healing of its mucous layer.
- Propolis tincture: 40 grams of propolis is poured into a bottle of dark glass and 400 ml of ethyl alcohol are poured. Insist the medicine in a dark place, shaking it regularly. Take 25-35 drops of tincture three times a day between meals.
- Sea buckthorn oil microclysters: from 40 to 60 ml of sea buckthorn oil is injected into the anus with the help of a syringe. The procedure is carried out 1 time a day before bedtime. Microclysters effectively accelerate the restoration of the mucous membrane of the colon, relieve pain and reduce the severity of inflammation.
- Microclysters with decoctions of medicinal herbs: almost any medicinal herbs that have anti-inflammatory and healing properties are suitable for microclysterism. Microclysters with decoctions of chamomile, yarrow, nettle, St. John's wort and calendula will be an excellent option for colitis.
- Broth of alder cones: 10 grams of alder cones pour 200 ml of boiling water and put on a slow fire for 20 minutes. After that, the broth is removed from the heat, filtered, topped up with boiling water to make 250 ml of medication, and drink like tea. A decoction of alder cones will help eliminate intestinal cramps and hold the chair together.
- Infusion of blueberries: 60 grams of dry berries and leaves of blueberries pour three cups of boiling water, cover with a lid and insist night. Take 200 ml of the medicine three times a day before meals. Infusion of blueberries will help to cope with diarrhea.
- Quince seed infusion: 1 tablespoon of quince seeds is poured over with 4 cups of boiling water, covered with a lid and allowed to stand overnight. I take the remedy for diarrhea 3-2 times a day, 200 ml.
This is a serious complication caused by taking antibiotics. It is characterized by the development of specific dysbacteriosis, which provokes intestinal inflammation. During this, fibrous raids of the so-called pseudomembrane are formed. The disease develops when using Clindamycin, Lincomycin, and other antibiotics. The direct cause of the disease lies in dysbacteriosis, when one microorganism, Clostridium difficile, prevails.
This disease is one of the stages of inflammation of the colon. It occurs after dyspepsia, lasts for several days. If adequate treatment is not followed, then catarrhal colitis flows into chronic, fibrous or ulcerative. The risk group includes people who suffer from vitamin deficiency, weakened immunity. Intestinal disorders and diseases can also provoke ailment.
Atrophic colitis, a disease of the colon, occurs due to eating disorders. In addition, it may develop due to improper diet. Toxic colitis can be diagnosed, which subsequently arise intoxication of the body with mercury, lead, arsenic. A long-term use of antibiotics and laxatives of various origins is characteristic of a medicinal type of ailment.
Causes and symptoms of colitis in children
In most cases, colitis in children develops due to bacterial dysentery. In addition, the disease provoke other viruses and microorganisms, invasion of worms and protozoa. Alimentary colitis occurs when there is a violation in the diet, a deficiency of vitamins, proteins, and a long consumption of coarse and spicy food. The disease develops due to allergies, malfunctions of the digestive system, nervous system, cardiovascular system. Frequent use of antibiotics, various drugs, addiction, abnormalities in development, intestinal dysfunction can be the cause of colitis.
Acute colitis is accompanied by fever, vomiting, weakness in a child, pain. The stool becomes more frequent, the stool becomes foamy, watery, with a green tint, streaks of blood, and mucus. The chronic type of the disease alternates with periods of remission and exacerbation. In infants or older children, chronic colitis is characterized by a violation of the chair, pain syndrome.
Ways to treat colitis at home
If you have symptoms of colitis, you should contact the medical clinic for treatment. Depending on the location of the inflammation, the degree of diagnosis, the disease may be dealt with by a surgical specialist, a proctologist and a gastroenterologist. Only a doctor can prescribe adequate treatment for adults and children in each individual case, especially during pregnancy. At home, the patient can follow a diet, try traditional methods, homeopathy, take medications prescribed by the doctor.
Diet and Special Diet
Gastroenterologists recommend to observe the fourth medical dietary table for colitis. General nutritional requirements for treatment:
- Banned fruit juices are concentrated. Use fresh fruit for treatment instead.
- Do not abuse meat, especially pork and beef during treatment.
- Forbidden on the treatment of bran, bran bread, fried foods.
- Prohibited salads and fresh vegetables.
- It is not recommended for the treatment of very cold and hot food, a large amount of liquid.
- You can not include spices and seasonings in the diet for treatment, fruits and vegetables with seeds during treatment.
- Mutton, chicken, fruit, vegetables without seeds are allowed.
- During the treatment, vegetables are steamed, boiled, and fruits are baked.
- It is allowed in the treatment of yesterday's bread, warm soups, mashed potatoes.
- Animal fats are limited, butter is sometimes allowed.
- Food should have a delicate texture for the treatment of different types of colitis.
- On an empty stomach in the morning you need to drink a glass of boiled warm water.
The use of drugs
If the disease is triggered by an infection, then a course of antibiotics is usually prescribed during treatment. During poisoning, intestinal infections, you can take adsorbents, such as activated carbon, lactofiltrum. Half an hour after the adsorbents, it is permitted to drink No-silo and spasms, as well as intestinal antiseptics, for example, Furazolidone. Enterosgel, Smekta will simultaneously adsorb and antiseptic effect. In case of diarrhea, it is necessary to replenish the liquid reserves with special solutions like Oralit and Rehydron.
If colitis is triggered by medication, but the prescribed drugs are canceled or replaced by others. In the chronic form of the disease, the following treatment regimen is used: intestinal motility regulators, anti-inflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs and antispasmodics. If the case is severe, glucocorticosteroid hormones are prescribed.