Anatomy

Which organ produces insulin in the human body

The main role of insulin in the body is the regulation and maintenance of normal blood glucose levels. With an increase in glucose greater than 100 mg / deciliter, the hormone insulin neutralizes glucose, directing it as glycogen to be stored in the liver, muscles, adipose tissue.

Failures in the production of insulin leads to serious consequences, for example, to the development of diabetes. To understand the mechanisms occurring in the body, it is necessary to find out how and where much-needed insulin is produced, and which organ produces insulin.

What are the functions of the pancreas and where is it located

The pancreas, in its size, is the second after the liver gland involved in the digestion process. It is located behind the stomach in the abdominal cavity and has the following structure:

The body is the main part of the gland, which has the shape of a trihedral prism and passes into the tail. The head covered by the duodenum is somewhat thickened and is located on the right side of the midline.

Now is the time to figure out which department is responsible for insulin production? The pancreas is rich in clusters of cells in which insulin is produced. These clusters are called "islets of Langerhans" or "pancreatic islets." Langerhans is a German pathologist who first discovered these islets at the end of the 19th century.

And, in turn, the Russian doctor L. Sobolev proved the truth of the statement that insulin is produced in the islets.

The mass of 1 million islets is only 2 grams, and this is approximately 3% of the total weight of the gland. However, these microscopic islands contain a huge number of cells A, B, D, PP. Their function is aimed at the secretion of hormones, which, in turn, regulate metabolic processes (carbohydrate, protein, fat).

Essential B Cell Function

B-cells are responsible for the production of insulin in the human body. This hormone is known to regulate glucose and is responsible for fat processes. If insulin production is impaired, diabetes develops.

Therefore, scientists around the world in the field of medicine, biochemistry, biology and genetic engineering are puzzled by the problem and seek to understand the smallest subtleties of insulin biosynthesis, in order to then learn how to regulate this process.

B cells produce two categories of hormone. In evolutionary terms, one of them is more ancient, and the second is improved, new. The first category of cells produces inactive and not performing the function of the hormone proinsulin. The amount of the substance produced does not exceed 5%, but its role has not yet been studied.

We note interesting features:

  1. Insulin, like proinsulin, is first synthesized by B cells, after which it is sent to the Golgi complex, here the hormone is subjected to further processing.
  2. Inside this structure, which is designed for the accumulation and synthesis of various substances, the C-peptide is cleaved by enzymes.
  3. As a result of this process, insulin is formed.
  4. Next, the hormone is packaged in secretory granules, in which it accumulates and is stored.
  5. As soon as the blood glucose level rises, there is a need for insulin, then with the help of B-cells it is intensively secreted into the blood.

This is how insulin production occurs in the human body.

When eating foods rich in carbohydrates, B cells must work in an emergency mode, which leads to their gradual depletion. This applies to all ages, but older people are especially susceptible to this pathology.

Over the years, insulin activity decreases and a hormone deficiency occurs in the body.

Compensatory B cells secrete an increasing amount of it. The abuse of sweets and flour products sooner or later leads to the development of a serious disease, which is diabetes. The consequences of this disease are often tragic. You can read more about what the hormone insulin is at the sleep site.

The action of the hormone that neutralizes sugar

The question involuntarily arises: how does glucose neutralize insulin in the human body? There are several stages of exposure:

  • increased permeability of the cell membrane, as a result of which the cells begin to intensively absorb sugar,
  • the conversion of glucose to glycogen, which is deposited in the liver and muscles,

Under the influence of these processes, the glucose level in the blood gradually decreases.

For living organisms, glycogen is a constant reserve source of energy. In percentage terms, the largest amount of this substance accumulates in the liver, although its total amount in muscles is much larger.

The amount of this natural starch in the body can be about 0.5 grams. If a person is physically active, then glycogen is used only after the entire supply of more accessible sources of energy is used up.

Surprisingly, the same pancreas also produces glucagon, which, in fact, is an insulin antagonist. Glucagon produces A-cells of the same gland islands, and the action of the hormone is aimed at extracting glycogen and increasing sugar levels.

But the functioning of the pancreas without hormone antagonists is not possible. Insulin is responsible for the synthesis of digestive enzymes, and glucagon reduces their production, that is, it performs the completely opposite effect. It can be clarified that any person, and especially a diabetic, needs to know what kind of pancreatic diseases, symptoms, treatment are, since life depends on this organ.

It becomes clear that the pancreas is an organ that produces insulin in the human body, which is then synthesized by very small islets of Langerhans.

Insulin

The hormone is one of the most important in ensuring the normal functioning of the body. Insulin plays a major role in the metabolic process, also due to it the normal absorption of glucose occurs. Insufficient amounts of insulin lead to type 1 diabetes.

The disease acts destructively on all systems of the body, causing severe complications. Hormone-deficient patients are forced to regularly maintain insulin levels by injection.

Elevated insulin levels can cause the development of type 2 diabetes. The disease, like the insulin-dependent form, has many complications and is dangerous to health and life.

Insulin, how it is produced in the body

The pancreas, in which the biosynthesis of the hormone, is an organ involved in the digestive process. Consists of body, head, tail. Insulin is formed in an accumulation of special pancreatic cells called “islets of Langerhans”, which are made up of various types of cells that produce certain hormones. Beta cells are responsible for insulin production.

The synthesis process in stages:

  1. The hormone produced by beta cells is transported to the Golgi complex, where further processing takes place.
  2. Then, insulin is "packed", accumulating in secretory granules, where it is stored.
  3. When hyperglycemia occurs, a hormone is released into the blood.

With the frequent use of foods saturated with carbohydrates, the gland switches to an enhanced regime, which gradually leads to its depletion and often becomes the cause of the initial stage of diabetes.

Insulin glucose neutralization

The work of the hormone, aimed at normalizing sugar levels, also occurs in stages:

  1. Increases the penetration of cell membranes.
  2. The activity of cells is formed, as a result of which sugar is absorbed and processed.
  3. Glucose is converted to glycogen, which accumulates in the cells of the liver, muscle tissue, as an additional energy source. It is consumed during a person’s physical activity, when the main energy sources come to exhaustion.

Causes of organ pathology

There can be many negative factors causing pancreatic diseases:

  • alcohol addiction,
  • abuse of salty, fatty, smoked foods,
  • pathology of the duodenum,
  • stomach ulcer
  • the occurrence of hormonal imbalance,
  • surgical interventions
  • hereditary factors, including diabetes,
  • metabolic disorders and others.

The consequences of pancreatic diseases

Failures in the functioning of the pancreas often provoke the development of many serious diseases, which, if untreated, take on a chronic form. With insufficient production of insulin by the body, or, on the contrary, production of too much of it, lead to the formation of the following pathologies:

  • pancreatitis
  • oncological diseases
  • diabetes mellitus.

Elevated Insulin Levels: Causes

The health of the body depends on the balance, including carbohydrate metabolism, one of the tasks of which is the formation of insulin. It is wrong to assume that an increased rate of the hormone can not harm health. Exceeding its amount is no less harmful than lowered rates.

The reason may be changes in the structure of the body. However, high insulin is often observed in type 2 diabetes. With this pathology, the functioning of the gland is observed in normal mode, when the islets of Langerans synthesize insulin in accordance with the norm.

The reason for the increase in the hormone is insulin resistance, that is, the sensitivity of cells to insulin decreases. As a result, sugar does not penetrate the cell membrane. The body begins to increase the supply of insulin, increasing its concentration.

Diagnosis of an elevated level is carried out using a blood test. The study is carried out on an empty stomach, after eating, the indicator changes.

If a high level is detected, it is necessary to identify the root cause in order to prescribe adequate treatment. When diabetes is detected, the patient is prescribed a special low-carb diet and drugs whose effect is aimed at improving the perception of the hormone at the cellular level.

Causes of low hormone levels:

A decrease in insulin levels can be caused by various circumstances. The endocrinologist can accurately determine the root cause as a result of the examination. Decreased hormone synthesis can cause:

  • The inclusion in the diet of an excessive amount of high-calorie foods, foods high in fat and carbohydrates / sweet, flour /. As a result, insulin becomes insufficient for the disposal of large quantities of incoming carbohydrates.
  • Constant overeating.
  • Low immunity.
  • Stresses, disorders of the psychoemotional state, chronic lack of sleep also cause a decrease in insulin production.
  • Inadequate physical activity.

Additional functions of insulin

In addition to the main purpose, insulin is involved in other body processes:

  • stimulation of protein synthesis processes,
  • help in the absorption of amino acids,
  • transportation of potassium, magnesium to cells.

With pathologies of the pancreas, which produces a hormone, insulin-dependent organs cannot contribute to the full oxidation of incoming glucose, resulting in tissue starvation. If abnormalities of insulin are detected, it is necessary to undergo examinations to identify the cause and prescribe appropriate treatment.

Which organ produces insulin

So, regarding the fact that insulin is produced in the body, we can definitely say - the pancreas. It is important to ensure the normal functioning of this body, since in case of violations there is a high probability of developing diabetes, which adversely affects the human condition.

The pancreas is not only responsible for the production of insulin, but also occupies key positions in ensuring the digestion process. It has a fairly simple structure: body, tail and head. But each of these parts plays a key role in maintaining health.

Insulin rate

Normal levels of insulin are produced in equal proportions both in childhood and in adulthood. It is important to understand that over time, the cells cease to perceive the hormone as actively as before.

The insulin background may vary depending on what kind of food a person has consumed. For example, if the body received carbohydrate food, then the amount of the hormone increases dramatically. This information will be needed by people who want to learn how to increase insulin production.

Therefore, when taking appropriate analyzes, the procedure is performed on an empty stomach. It is also worth considering that blood sampling will not be informative if a person uses insulin injections, since the total volume of the hormone is shown.

It is important to understand that not only its deficiency, but also in cases where too much insulin is secreted - all this indicates the presence of some malfunctions in the normal functioning of the pancreas.

Too high a level can speak of the development of neoplasms in the area where the organ is located.

In fact, the main danger with high sugar is a violation of the process of splitting carbohydrates and their further conversion into energy. Because of this, cells lack food, they try to get it from healthy surrounding structures, thereby often causing irreparable harm to the human body.

If the level of glucose in the blood goes off scale, then this is considered the main manifestation of diabetes.

A fairly serious disease that reduces the patient's life expectancy by one or more tens of years. This disease is characterized by the formation of dangerous complications, among which the following can be distinguished:

  • Retinal damage, which can cause complete loss of vision,
  • Impaired renal function, due to which the necessary protein is not retained,
  • Blunt nerve endings. As a result - loss of sensation, cramps,
  • Malfunctions of the cardiovascular system, which often leads to strokes and heart attacks.

The functions of insulin in the body consist primarily in maintaining a normal level of sugar and providing energy to the cells of the body, thereby forming the stability of the activity of all body systems.

Therefore, in the treatment of diabetes, artificial insulin is used. But it is important to understand that it is not able to fully replace a natural product. Therefore, it is necessary to consult a doctor on how to make the pancreas produce insulin.

Early Research Edit

In 1869, in Berlin, 22-year-old medical student Paul Langerhans, studying with a new microscope the structure of the pancreas, drew attention to previously unknown cells that form groups that were evenly distributed throughout the gland. The purpose of these “small piles of cells”, later known as the “islets of Langerhans,” was not clear, but later Eduard Lagus showed that a secret is formed in them, which plays a role in the regulation of digestion.

In 1889, the German physiologist Oscar Minkowski, in order to show that the pancreas is thought up in digestion, set up an experiment in which the gland was removed in a healthy dog. A few days after the start of the experiment, Minkowski's assistant, who was monitoring laboratory animals, drew attention to a large number of flies that flied into the urine of the experimental dog. Examining the urine, he found that the dog excreted sugar in the urine. This was the first observation that allowed us to connect the work of the pancreas and diabetes.

Sobolev's work Edit

In 1900, Leonid Vasilievich Sobolev (1876-1919) experimentally discovered that after ligation of the pancreatic ducts, the glandular tissue atrophies, and the islets of Langerhans are preserved 4. The experiments were carried out in the laboratory of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Since the activity of islet cells persists, diabetes does not occur. These results, along with the well-known fact of islet changes in patients with diabetes, allowed Sobolev to conclude that the islets of Langerhans are necessary for the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, Sobolev suggested using the gland of newborn animals, in which the islets are well developed with respect to the digestive apparatus, to isolate a substance with antidiabetic effects. The methods for isolating the active hormonal substance from the pancreas, proposed and published by Sobolev, were used in 1921 by Bunting and Best in Canada without reference to Sobolev 4.

Attempts to isolate an antidiabetic substance

In 1901, the following important step was taken: Eugene Opie clearly showed that “Diabetes mellitus ... is caused by the destruction of the pancreatic islets, and occurs only when these bodies are partially or completely destroyed.". The relationship between diabetes and the pancreas was known before, but until then it was not clear that diabetes is associated with islets.

Over the next two decades, several attempts were made to isolate islet secretion as a potential cure. In 1906 de Zweltzer achieved some success in lowering blood glucose levels in experimental dogs with pancreatic extract, but could not continue his work. Scott (E. L. Scott) Between 1911 and 1912 he used an aqueous extract of the pancreas at the University of Chicago and noted “a slight decrease in glucosuria,” but he could not convince his supervisor of the importance of his research, and soon these experiments were stopped. Israel Kleiner en showed the same effect at Rockefeller University in 1919, but his work was interrupted by the outbreak of the First World War, and he could not complete it. A similar work after experiments in France in 1921 was published by professor of physiology at the Bucharest School of Medicine and Pharmacology Nicolae Paulesco, and in Romania he is considered the discoverer of insulin.

Bunting and Best insulin secretion Edit

However, the practical release of insulin belongs to a group of scientists at the University of Toronto. Frederick Bunting knew about Sobolev’s work and practically realized the ideas of Sobolev, but did not refer to them 4. From his notes: “Bandage the pancreatic duct to the dog.Leave the dog until the acini collapse and only the islets remain. Try to highlight the inner secret and act on glycosuria ... "

In Toronto, Bunting met with J. MacLeod and set out his thoughts to him in the hope of securing his support and getting the equipment he needed to work. The idea of ​​Bunting at first seemed to the professor absurd and even funny. But the young scientist still managed to convince Macleod to support the project. And in the summer of 1921, he provided Bunting with a university laboratory and an assistant, 22-year-old Charles Best, and also allocated 10 dogs to him. Their method was that a ligature was tightened around the excretory duct of the pancreas, preventing the secretion of pancreatic juice from the gland, and a few weeks later, when exocrine cells died, thousands of islands remained alive, from which they managed to isolate a protein that significantly reduced sugar in the blood of dogs with removed pancreas. At first he was called "ayletin."

Returning from Europe, MacLeod appreciated the significance of all the work done by his subordinates, however, in order to be completely sure of the effectiveness of the method, the professor demanded to do the experiment again in his presence. And a few weeks later it became clear that the second attempt was also successful. However, the isolation and purification of "ayletin" from the pancreas of dogs was extremely time-consuming and lengthy work. Bunting decided to try to use the pancreas of the calf's fruit as a source, in which digestive enzymes have not yet been produced, but enough insulin has already been synthesized. This greatly facilitated the work. After solving the problem with the source of insulin, the next important task was the purification of the protein. To solve it, in December 1921, Macleod brought in a brilliant biochemist, James Collip (Russian). who eventually managed to develop an effective method for purifying insulin.

And on January 11, 1922, after many successful trials with dogs, diabetes, 14-year-old Leonard Thompson received the first insulin injection in history. However, the first experience with insulin was unsuccessful. The extract was not sufficiently purified, and this led to the development of allergies, therefore, insulin injections were suspended. For the next 12 days, Collip worked hard in the laboratory to improve the extract. And on January 23, Leonard was given a second dose of insulin. This time the success was complete, there were not only obvious side effects, but the patient stopped progressing diabetes. However, later Bunting and Best did not work together with Collip and soon parted with him.

Large quantities of pure insulin were required. And before an effective method was found for the rapid industrial production of insulin, a lot of work was done. An important role in this was played by Bunting's acquaintance with Eli Lilly. , co-owner of one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies Eli Lilly and Company. source not specified 2423 days

For this revolutionary discovery, Macleod and Bunting in 1923 were awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Bunting was initially very indignant that his assistant Best was not presented for the award with him, and at first he even defiantly refused the money, but then he nevertheless agreed to accept the award, and solemnly shared his part with Best source not specified 2828 days . MacLeod did the same, sharing his prize with Collip source not specified 2828 days . The insulin patent was sold to the University of Toronto for one dollar. Industrial commercial production of insulin under the brand name Iletin was started in 1923 by the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company 5.

Structure Decryption Edit

The credit for determining the exact sequence of the amino acids that make up the insulin molecule (the so-called primary structure) belongs to the British molecular biologist Frederick Senger. Insulin was the first protein for which the primary structure was completely determined. For the work done in 1958, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. And after almost 40 years, Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin using the X-ray diffraction method determined the spatial structure of the insulin molecule. Her work is also awarded the Nobel Prize.

Synthesis Edit

The first artificial synthesis of insulin in the early 1960s was carried out almost simultaneously by Panagiotis Katsoyanis at the University of Pittsburgh and Helmut Zahn at the RFTI Aachen 6 7. The first genetically engineered human insulin was obtained in 1978 by Arthur Riggs and Keiichi Takura at Beckman Research Institute with the participation of Herbert Boyer from Genentech using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology, they also developed the first commercial preparations of such insulin - Beckman Research Institute in 1980 8 and Genentech in 1982 (under the brand name Humulin) 9. Recombinant insulin is produced by baker's yeast and Escherichia coli 10.

Semi-synthetic methods convert pork and other animals to human, insulin, but microbiological technology is more promising and is already leading, because more productive and efficient 8.

The main stimulus to the synthesis and release of insulin is an increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood.

What is insulin

The composition of insulin 51 amino acids that form 2 polypeptide chains. For scientists it is known what is human insulin and also animals (cattle, pigs).

In the hormone of animal origin, 1 amino acid more.

Naturally, human-type insulin is effective in diabetes, but semi-synthetic (1 amino acid is replaced in the pig-type hormone) is also of high quality, biosynthetic (E. coli is prompted to reproduce the hormone by genetic engineering).

What organ produces it

The body that produces insulin is called the pancreas. It is an oblong form of iron with systemic ducts, located in the peritoneum. Through the ducts, pancreatic juice is removed into the duodenum.

The pancreas, where insulin is produced, includes the body, tail, and head. Each of these parts has a different function for the digestive system. On the organ there are many cells that are called islets. It is in them that insulin production occurs.

Around them is a large number of capillaries that deliver nutrients. The weight of 1,000,000 islets is 2 grams, this is not more than 3% of the weight of the entire gland. Despite such microscopic parameters, the islands have vitamins: A, B, D, PP.

The pancreas enhances its work after eating, but between meals, during sleep there is a small release of insulin.

The pancreas is the only organ that produces insulin in the human body. The most dependent cells on insulin are muscle and fat, which promote blood circulation, respiration, and movement. The muscles involved in movement cannot function normally without insulin. In the whole cell mass, 2/3 of insulin-dependent tissues.

Insulin function

Insulin is involved in the metabolism of many organs and tissues. The initial task that the hormone performs is to stabilize glucose in the body.

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Functions include:

  • increase in selective penetration of cytoplasmic membranes,
  • activation of glycogen biosynthesis from glucose in the muscles and liver (a person after intensive exercise exercises consumes glycogen, which is converted into energy),
  • suppression of the enzymatic work of proteins that break down fats and glycogen,
  • activation of enzymes that modify glycogen processes.

With age, the proper functioning of the organ decreases, therefore, after 40 years, it is necessary to monitor the level of glucose and insulin in order to diagnose the development of pathology at the first stages.

When consuming a large amount of carbohydrates, there is a conversion to glycogen, which is concentrated in the liver. When overeating excess carbohydrates form fatty tissue, while a person has unlimited possibilities for the accumulation of fat.

Sugar neutralization process

In order to stabilize the sugar level, it goes through several stages:

  • the permeability of the cell membrane increases, during which the cells absorb sugar,
  • the conversion of glucose to glycogen, which forms a reserve in the muscles and liver.

Thus, glucose levels are reduced. The pancreas produces a hormone - an insulin antagonist - glucagon. It is he who is involved in the conversion of glycogen to sugar.

How to increase or decrease insulin levels

If the pancreas does not produce enough hormone, then it is important to increase it. In addition to insulin injections, you can do gymnastics, walk on foot, eat those foods that stimulate the gland.

When there is an excess of insulin, they ascribe a diet, work on weight loss, and perform special exercises under the supervision of a physical therapy coach.

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Pathologies related to insulin

With any changes in the functioning of the pancreas, health problems arise. High insulin levels indicate a tumor. With an increased amount, there is insufficient glucose consumption, which causes diabetes. With a lack of hormone, a protein that carries sugar is activated, and glucose molecules are concentrated in the blood.

Due to the large amount of sugar, blood thickens into blood clots. They prevent the movement of nutrients and oxygen through the vessels. There is starvation and atrophy of cells and tissues. Thrombosis causes varicose veins, leukemia, and sometimes leads to death of a person.

A metabolic disorder leads to a lack of glucose, as a result of which intracellular processes are inhibited. Cells do not grow or renew. Glucose does not turn into glycogen (energy reserve). Therefore, under load, not fatty tissue is consumed, but muscle mass. A person loses weight, acquires a weak, dystrophic form.

In case of violation of insulin production, another process occurs - the digestibility of amino acids important for the body is violated (they serve as the basis for protein synthesis). Energy metabolism is disrupted, as a result, a person gains weight.

Internal processes affect the life of a person. It becomes more difficult to perform simple everyday tasks, tormenting headaches, dizziness, nausea, sometimes even fainting. With weight loss, a strong hunger is felt.

A violation of the functionality of the pancreas is provoked by factors:

  • binge eating,
  • stress, increased exercise,
  • immunity lowering diseases
  • improper diet, intake of excessive amounts of carbohydrates.

In this state, glucose accumulates in the plasma, stops getting into the cells in the right amount. It is deposited on the joints, causing additional diseases of the osteoarticular apparatus.

Failure of the pancreas functionality provokes further health problems, occurs:

  • development of retinal diseases, blindness,
  • changes in kidney function,
  • changes in the cardiovascular system (strokes, heart attacks),
  • sensitivity decreases, cramps in the limbs.

Diabetes is triggered by insulin malfunctions, reduces life expectancy by at least 10 years.

Types of diabetes

There are 2 types of disease. With type 1 diabetes, a low amount of insulin is observed, because patients need regular injections of the hormone. Insulin is administered intramuscularly. As a rule, it is of animal origin or synthetic. Injections are done in the abdomen, shoulders, shoulder blades, and thigh.

Type 2 diabetes has high insulin, but the body does not perceive it. Hyperglycemia of a chronic form develops. Therefore, it is important to use sugar-lowering drugs. In this case, it is important to follow a diet that allows you to stabilize the state of health in both cases. Sometimes during the period of gestation, insulin rises, which stabilizes after childbirth.

The human body is a single system, and hormone regulation is a multi-level and complex process. If the work of one organ is disrupted, this entails the development of other diseases.To reduce the risk of malfunctions in the pancreas, it is important to lead a healthy lifestyle, avoid stress. If there are signs of a change in blood insulin level, it is necessary to undergo an examination.

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For many years we could only help people by controlling their blood sugar. Only the constant use of sugar-lowering drugs could allow a person to live.

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What happens if insulin is not produced enough?

If beta cells die, the hormone begins to be produced in a minimal amount. Which organ produces insulin, we already know. It is also worth knowing what will happen if the production of a substance ceases altogether. In this case, the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus will be made. Such patients are prescribed insulin injections. Without them, they cannot lead a full-fledged lifestyle. If a person is not injected insulin artificially, he will die.

In some patients, doctors can detect only a partial loss of beta cells. The endocrinologist takes the decision on the appointment of insulin individually. If the patient has a tendency to develop diabetes, he should be regularly examined by a specialist (every few months).

Today, every diabetic knows which organ produces insulin in the body. Such patients understand that a hormone deficiency can lead to the development of hypoglycemic coma. This condition is extremely dangerous, often fatal.

When should insulin be injected?

If you are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, this does not mean that you have to do hormone injections all your life. Artificial administration of a substance is prescribed only when beta cells die completely. The body itself cannot recover the loss. Therefore, patients who have already begun to administer insulin, there is no turning back.

Modern technology does not stand still. Doctors have been working on methods for restoring the pancreas for a long time. Today, there is the only way to return the hormone to full production. Beta cell transplantation is an expensive procedure that can restore a familiar lifestyle. However, the operation is carried out only in a few clinics abroad and is quite expensive. In addition, there may be difficulties with the availability of donor material.

People with a diagnosis of diabetes know which organ produces the hormone insulin. Such patients should first of all review their diet if they do not want to be constantly on injections. However, practice shows what type of diabetes one would not have to face, sooner or later pancreatic depletion occurs. As a result, you still have to inject the hormone artificially.

How is insulin extracted for use in medicine?

What human organ produces the hormone insulin is already clear. However, a substance of animal origin can also be used to treat diabetes. So, insulin can also be pork and bovine. These hormones are widely used in medicine. Pork insulin is valued higher. Due to the high degree of purification, the substance is well tolerated by the body. Almost never develop allergic reactions. Pork insulin is considered affordable, with its help it is possible to quickly normalize blood sugar levels.

What organ of a person produces insulin is already clear. Pork and bovine hormone are also produced by the pancreas. Substances obtained from cattle are used less frequently. Such insulin is considered unsafe. It can lead to the development of allergic reactions.

Insulin action

Hormone purification can be performed using various technologies. As a result, short-acting or prolonged-acting “insulin” can be sold. For emergency cases, ultra-short-acting drugs are used. Such "Insulin" can be used in resuscitation. Normalization of the patient's condition occurs immediately after administration of the drug. However, such an artificial hormone lasts only a few hours.

Patients with diabetes are most often prescribed a medium-acting hormone. One injection is enough for a day. If you use the medicine in accordance with all the rules and adhere to a special diet, you will be able to lead a full-fledged lifestyle.

Features of insulin administration

If the doctor prescribes regular administration of the hormone, you need to learn how to properly inject. The selection of the drug itself is carried out individually. The degree of diabetes mellitus, the age of the patient, the characteristics of a particular organism, the presence of concomitant pathologies are taken into account. Dosage calculation is based on the patient’s body weight. The daily dose of the drug "Insulin" can vary from 0.5 to 1 unit per kilogram of body weight of the patient. That is, if the patient weighs 50 kg, he will be prescribed from 25 to 50 units of the hormone per day. In the initial stage of diabetes, the drug can be used in smaller quantities. The daily dosage should be increased during pregnancy.

All insulin-based products are recommended to be stored in the refrigerator. The optimum temperature regime is 2-8 degrees Celsius. On sale you can find drugs in the form of a syringe pen. They can be carried with you in your purse and driven in case of deterioration. However, when exposed to heat, insulin deteriorates rapidly. Therefore, the shelf life of such a medicine is no more than 30 days.

The introduction of insulin into the body is a special procedure that must be performed in accordance with all the rules. First you need to wash your hands thoroughly, treat the place of the hormone with alcohol. An insulin syringe must be opened immediately before the substance is introduced into the body. Make sure there is no air in the syringe. The hormone is injected subcutaneously into the fatty tissue. This can be done on the stomach, buttocks, in the upper thigh.

How the hormone works

The work of insulin to normalize blood glucose takes place in three stages:

  1. First of all, the penetration of the cell membrane is increased.
  2. Further, the cellular structure forms an active activity in the absorption and processing of sugar.
  3. The final stage is based on the conversion of glucose to glycogen - an additional and stable source of energy, which is characterized by deposition into the liver and muscle tissue. In general, the body may contain up to half a gram of this starch of natural origin.

Its mechanism of action is as follows: a person begins to actively perform physical exercises, while glycogen begins to gradually be consumed, but only after the main sources of energy are exhausted.

It is also worth noting that the pancreas produces not only insulin, but also the so-called hormone antagonist - glucagon. It is formed with the participation of A-cells of the same organ parts, and the result of its activity is to extract glycogen and increase blood sugar.

It is important to understand that both hormones are essential for the optimal functioning of the pancreas. As already noted, insulin is considered one of the key elements in the formation of digestive enzymes, while glucagon performs the opposite activity - it reduces their production, not allowing enzymes to stand out from cells.

The consequences of insulin production disorders

In the event of a malfunction of any organ, the general condition of the body will be subjected to a fairly negative effect. As for malfunctions in the functioning of the pancreas, they can lead to many quite serious and dangerous pathologies, which can be difficult to cope with even using modern treatment methods.

If you ignore the doctor’s recommendations for eliminating the disease, then the pathology becomes chronic. Therefore, it is obvious that you should not delay the adoption of measures - it is better to visit a specialist again who can help with the appointment of appropriate treatment, taking into account these complications.

For example, depending on why the pancreas does not produce insulin or, on the contrary, produces too much, the following lesions may form:

  • Pancreatitis
  • Diabetes,
  • Oncological lesions.

So, insulin is a hormone whose function is to regulate blood sugar and the formation of digestive enzymes. It is important to remember that any deviations from the norm of the hormone indicate the presence of certain diseases that should be dealt with as soon as possible.

Where does insulin production go?

The pancreas consists of various tissues, a duct system and several types of cells. One of them is beta cells located in pancreatic islets, named for the scientist Langerhans. They produce this hormone.

Parts of which the pancreas consists:

  1. Head. It is located to the right of the center line and fits snugly to the duodenum.
  2. Body - considered the main part. In shape, it resembles a prism-like trihedron.
  3. Tail. Beta cells are located in this part.

  1. Endocrine. This function is to produce 5 hormones.
  2. Exocrine. This action of the gland is based on the release of amylase, protease, lipase along the existing ducts leading to the organ cavity. Substances take part in the digestion of food.

Hormone production mechanism:

  • insulin is produced from the moment the amount of carbohydrates received from food increases,
  • after secretion, the hormone penetrates alternately into the pancreatic and hepatic veins, and then passes into the bloodstream,
  • hormone content is reduced during fasting.

The role of insulin in the human body:

  • the movement of the hormone into the bloodstream leads to the provision of cells with sugar, amino acids and potassium,
  • provides regulation of the processes that make up carbohydrate metabolism,
  • replenishes the energy supply of cells,
  • monitors the metabolism of constituent fat elements, proteins,
  • insulin is a hormone that helps maintain normal glycemia and prevents the increase in blood glucose concentration,
  • promotes the growth of throughput in cell membranes and provides them with nutrients,
  • participates in the functioning of the liver, due to which glycogen is produced,
  • promotes the accumulation and formation of proteins,
  • leads to active production of growth hormone,
  • prevents the formation of ketone bodies,
  • affects every metabolic process in the human body.

Insulin is the only hormone that counteracts glucose growth.

Pancreatic beta cells

The main role of these cells is the production of insulin. Scientists have not fully studied the whole principle of hormone secretion, therefore, all the subtleties of this process are not yet understood by mankind in order to influence it and prevent the development of insulin resistance. Even a slight deficiency in hormone production can cause diabetes.

Types of hormones synthesized by beta cells:

  1. Proinsulin is a precursor to insulin.
  2. Insulin. In the process of its occurrence, it undergoes various transformations, acts as an analogue of the first type of hormone.

Scheme for the formation of insulin:

  1. The synthesis of insulin in beta cells is carried out in the process of modification, which then goes into the Golgi complex, undergoing additional processing.
  2. Cleavage of the C peptide occurs under the influence of various types of enzymes.
  3. The protein hormone is enveloped with special secretory granules in which it is stored and accumulated.
  4. With an increase in sugar concentration, the hormone is released and its functioning begins.

The glucose-sensor beta-cell system is responsible for regulating the production of the hormone, thereby ensuring the proportionality between the synthesis and blood sugar.

Excessive intake of carbohydrates is capable, on the one hand, of causing the pancreas to produce insulin, and on the other, of provoking the weakening of the ability of pancreatic islets to produce hormone, which leads to a parallel increase in glycemia. People after 40 years old most often undergo such changes in the pancreas.

Impact on metabolic processes

Insulin neutralizes glucose molecules as follows:

  • stimulates its transport through cell membranes, activating protein carriers that can capture excess glucose and redirect it,
  • delivers more carbohydrates to the cells,
  • converts glucose to glycogen,
  • transfers carbohydrate molecules to other tissues.

Glycogen molecules are considered the basic source of energy for many living organisms. Use of the substance begins only after the depletion of other alternatives.

The breakdown of glycogen molecules and their conversion into glucose occurs under the influence of glucagon. Such a two-way synthesis helps neutralize the influence of hormones on each other and thus supports homeostasis in the body.

What diseases can cause disturbed excretion?

A disruption in the functioning of any internal organ or system entails negative changes in the whole body.

Deviations in the activity of the pancreas can cause many serious pathologies, which can be difficult to eliminate even with the help of modern therapeutic measures.

Ignoring medical recommendations aimed at eliminating diseases leads to their transition to a chronic form. That is why you should not delay the treatment. To do this, it is enough to visit a specialist and choose the appropriate method of therapeutic effect, which will avoid subsequent complications.

A feature of the pancreas is that its cells produce excess insulin, which is absorbed only in case of excessive intake of carbohydrate-containing food (for example, a large number of flour products, muffins and sweets). Nevertheless, with the development of some diseases, even such a supply will not be enough to prevent a rise in glucose levels.

Pathologies that occur against the background of increased hormone synthesis:

  1. Insulinoma. The disease is characterized by the formation of a benign tumor consisting of beta cells. Such a swelling causes symptoms such as hypoglycemia.
  2. Pancreatitis. The disease occurs against the background of organ inflammation, accompanied by pain, vomiting and digestive disorders.
  3. Insulin shock. This condition is accompanied by a complex of manifestations associated with an overdose of insulin.
  4. Somoji syndrome. The disease is considered a chronic form of insulin overdose.

Pathologies that appear due to a lack of hormone or a violation of its assimilation:

  1. Diabetes 1of type. This endocrine pathology is provoked by a deviation in the assimilation, as well as the production of insulin. The amount of hormone produced by the pancreas is not able to lower the level of glucose concentration. As a result, the patient notes a deterioration in their health. The lack of timely therapy leads to dangerous complications from the blood circulation and heart function.As a treatment, the method of administering insulin using subcutaneous injections is used.
  2. Type 2 diabetes. In contrast to the insulin-dependent form, this type of disease differs in the specifics of its course and treatment. At the first stages of iron, insulin is produced in sufficient quantities, but as the pathology progresses, the body becomes resistant to it. This leads to an uncontrolled increase in glycemia, which can only be regulated by limiting the diet of carbohydrates and taking certain drugs if necessary.

Thus, it is insulin that is responsible for many functions in the body. It regulates the level of glycemia, covers the formation of enzymes involved in digestion. Any changes and deviations of this indicator from the norm directly indicate the occurrence of certain diseases that should be eliminated as soon as possible.

Video about diabetes:

Artificial hormone recovery

Today, it is impossible to increase the production of insulin and resume the normal functioning of pancreatic islets. For these purposes, animals and synthetic insulins are used. The method in which the drug is administered subcutaneously to a patient with diabetes is considered the main therapeutic method for restoring the material balance in the body.

Treatment is carried out in combination with a special low-carb diet. The basis of such nutrition is the exclusion of sugar and fast carbohydrates. Eating is carried out under the control of glucose levels, as well as the amount of consumed XE (bread units).

Ways to eliminate excess insulin levels:

  • reduce the number of meals, as well as limit the presence of light carbohydrates in the diet,
  • carry out drug therapy,
  • avoid stress.

Therapy is considered more effective if the patient is involved in sports, walks and leads an active lifestyle.

Insulin is responsible for regulating a large number of metabolic processes in the body. Constant monitoring of not only glycemia, but also the level of the hormone, makes it possible not to miss the occurrence of many serious pathologies and to begin treatment in time to prevent the development of dangerous complications.

Watch the video: Diabetes: How insulin works (January 2020).